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Dense-core vesicles traffic bidirectionally in the axon of cultured hippocampal neurons.

A montage of still frames and a movie of a neuron expressing NPY-Cherry and soluble GFP. After live-cell imaging, cells were stained by immuncytochemistry with an antibody against the dendritic marker MAP2. The axon is defined by morphological criteria as viewed by the GFP signal, e.g. long, thin, even caliber, and the absence of MAP2 staining. For more information see reference #17.


Alzheimerĺs peptides disrupt axonal transport of BDNF.

Live imaging showing dense-core vesicle transport in control versus A▀O-treated (18h, 0.5 uM) neurons. Note the significant difference between BDNF-mRFP vesicle flux in controls compared to A▀O-treated neurons. For more information on these studies see reference #18.


Selectivity of TFR-GFP Transport in a Mature Hippocampal Neuron in Culture

The GFP fluorescence images were pseudocolored green and superimposed on the red-pseudocolored MAP2 immunofluorescence image obtained after fixation at the end of the recording. The video shows a rapid playback (6X real time) of a 30 second recording. Several anterogradely moving vesicles enter the top of the segment near the beginning of the recording, and other anterogradely moving vesicles are apparent near the bottom of the dendritic segment. A bright retrogradely moving vesicle is also apparent near the middle of the dendritic segment. No vesicles move into the axonal branch--i.e. the TfR vesicles are "smart", and translocate only on the microtubules in the dendritic branch.





Uniform transport of NgCAM-GFP

A 7 day old neuron expressing the membrane protein NgCAM tagged with GFP. The video shows a rapid playback (6X real time) of a 30 second recording. NgCAM-GFP vesicles move bidirectionally in and out of both the axon and the dendrites at an average rate of 1um/sec. However, NgCAM is polarized to the axonal cell surface.



Retrograde transport of TfR-GFP in a axon

A 3 day old neuron expressing the membrane protein transferrin receptor (TfR) tagged with GFP. The video shows a rapid playback (6X real time) of a 30 second recording. TfR-GFP vesicles move bidirectionally in and out of the dendrites at an average rate of 1um/sec. The bright spot in the cell body is the Golgi apparatus.



Axon outgrowth, Stage 2 to Stage 3 transition

Phase contrast time-lapse recording of a Stage 2 neuron forming an axon. The video shows a rapid playback of a 16 hour recording with one image taken every 10 minutes.

*Note: Courtesy of Ginger Withers, Whitman College.